• 3 students and 2 professors working together in a lab
  • Stefanie H. BakerStefanie H. Baker, Associate Professor, Biology
    B.S., Clemson University
    M.S., North Carolina State University
    Ph.D., Clemson University
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    Dr. Baker received her B.S. in microbiology from Clemson University (where she played trumpet in Tiger Band!), her M.S. in microbiology from North Carolina State University, and her Ph.D. in genetics from Clemson University. Her master’s work focused on protein phosphatase type I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and her Ph.D. work involved characterization of carboxysomes in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. Baker conducted a post-doctoral research project at Clemson University in the Food Science Department investigating bacteriocins from Propionibacterium. Before joining the faculty at Wofford College in 2008, she taught at Erskine College where she won several teaching awards.  Baker is fascinated by microbiology and bacteria specifically. She enjoys collaborating with colleagues during the January Interim term. She worked with Chemistry Professor Dr. Jameica Hill to develop a Forensics course and with Dr. Natalie Spivey on “Living in a Microbial World."

    She is the faculty advisor for Wofford’s chapter of Beta Beta Beta, the biological honor society and serves on the College Curriculum Committee.

    Baker teaches sophomore level courses (Genetics 212 and Cell Biology 214), Microbiology (324), and Cellular Biochemistry (433).  She’s wife to Greg, mother to Matthew, and caregiver to Jackson and Bella (her family dogs) all of whom provide teaching examples and stories for the classroom and lab.
    Noel A. BrownleeDr. Noel A. Brownlee, Adjunct Professor of Biology
    B.A. and B.S., Wofford College
    Ph.D., Medical University of South Carolina
    M.D., University of South Carolina
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    Dr. Brownlee is a pathologist serving Bon Secours Saint Francis Hospital System in Greenville, SC. While his primary responsibilities are as a practicing physician, Dr. Brownlee has a strong interest in undergraduate and medical education.

    Dr. Brownlee is a 1993 Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the Wofford College. He earned his Ph.D. in experimental pathology with emphasis in cancer cell biology at the Medical University of South Carolina. His thesis work involved work in characterization of drug resistance mechanisms in pediatric renal tumors.

    Dr. Brownlee completed his M.D. at the University of South Carolina and a residency in anatomic and clinical pathology at Duke and Wake Forest University Medical Centers. During his medical training, he was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. He completed a surgical pathology fellowship and served on the faculty of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Brownlee’s primary clinical research interests include topics in pulmonary and urologic disease.

    Since 2008, Dr. Brownlee has often offered a course in the biology department – Biology 480 (Human Disease). In addition, Dr. Brownlee has also participated in Biology 280 (Case Studies in Biomedicine) in collaboration with Dr. George Shiflet, as well as serving as a guest lecturer in Cancer Biology, Histology, and interim courses including forensic sciences. Since 2010, Dr. Brownlee has also served as an Associate Professor of Pathology at the Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine and currently serves as the Director of Medical Student Education at the college’s clinical training site at Bon Secours St. Francis Hospitals. He also is appointed a Clinical Associate Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine.

    Dr. Brownlee is very active in a variety of national professional societies including the College of American Pathologists. He has served in the House of Delegates and on the Education, Graduate Medical Education, Publications, Surgical Pathology and Federal and State Affairs Committees.

    Dr. Brownlee enjoys offering his experiences in the basic and medical sciences to Wofford students and notes that is was from the mentorship of a 1956 Wofford graduate, pathologist Dr. Charles Webb, that he first became interested in the biomedical sciences.

    Dr. Brownlee enjoys spending time with his wife, internist Dr. Caroline Brownlee, and two sons, as well as participating is medical missions trips and traveling.
    cainarAubrey R. Cain, Biology Laboratory Coordinator and Greenhouse Assistant
    B.S., Wofford College
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    Aubrey Cain grew up in Columbia, SC and received a B.S. in Biology from Wofford in 2017. As a student, Aubrey worked as a laboratory teaching assistant for Human Physiology and Microbiology, a tutor for various biology courses as well as a Writing Center tutor. She has an immense love for both Wofford and biology, which makes her ideally suited to serve as Lab Coordinator while she applies to medical school. She enjoys sharing her enthusiasm for learning and is excited to work with the students in the introductory biology courses during the 2017-2018 school year.

    When she’s not working in the labs or meeting with student assistants and professors, she teaches a fitness class every week day in the Richardson Fitness Center. Her hobbies include cooking, hiking, reading fiction novels, watching Game of Thrones, and (despite her desire to lead a healthy lifestyle) eating too much ice cream.
    Lisa CantwellDr. Lisa Cantwell
    B.S., University of North Carolina, Asheville
    Ph.D., University of Tennessee, Knoxville
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    Dr. Lisa Cantwell is in her second year as a Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology. Dr. Cantwell earned the B.S. in Biology from University of North Carolina, Asheville and, in 2016, a Ph.D. in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. She is broadly interested in animal behavior and communication with an emphasis in predator-prey dynamics and the use of sensory mechanisms through which animals perceive and interact with their environment. Her doctoral research investigated the role of hearing in the invasive lizard the brown anole from both the proximate and ultimate perspectives. She was invited to present her research to faculty and students in the Departments of Biology and Embodied Systems for Robotics and Learning at the University of Southern Denmark in Fall 2016. Additionally, she gave a seminar on antipredator behavior in anoles for Wofford students and faculty.

    Dr. Cantwell has loved animals since she was a child and this led her to work in the veterinary field while going to school. She has a combined 11 years of experience in a small animal general practice clinic, a 24-hour emergency clinic, and a nationally recognized high volume/high quality spay/neuter clinic with a veterinary student externship. She continues to share her knowledge as a volunteer co-host on ‘Calling All Species’ a one-hour, weekly radio show out of Asheville, NC.

    Cantwell’s love of animals is equally matched by her passion for teaching biology. She highly enjoys getting know her students, both personally and academically. Her ultimate goal is to help her students become well-rounded, evidence-based thinkers with a new perspective of the biological world that surrounds them.

    Dr. Cantwell teaches both the lecture and the laboratory sections for Bio 150 (Biological Inquiry) and Bio 151 (Biological Development). Here’s a sample of what her students wrote in their course evaluations:

    “Dr. Cantwell has instilled in me a desire to pursue Biology. She is really an inspiration and always helps me to the absolute fullest extent that she can. I really feel like I've not only grown in my biology knowledge while taking this course, but also in my knowledge as a person.”

    “Dr. Cantwell is so passionate about biology, especially her anoles. I love how enthusiastic she is about the course because it makes me really want to learn and be just as excited as she is by it.”

    “Dr. Cantwell is always trying to change up what we do in class, so it is not just lecture based. I love doing the group activities and interacting with other people in my class because it creates discussions and helps me better understand the material. Sometimes I thought I knew something and was completely wrong, but the group activities helped me better understand.”

    “I love Cantwell. She is amazing and instills a passion for biology in people that don't already have one already.”


    Cantwell will teach Animal Behavior (Bio 391/392) in Fall 2017 in which students will learn how animals interact with each other and their environment. They will consult the primary literature and design and conduct their own experiments. The will gain additional experience with statistical analysis as they analyze their results and report their findings and conclusions. She also anticipates teaching Introduction to Veterinary Medicine (Bio 280) course in the Spring of 2018.

    When not teaching, she enjoys being outdoors hiking and hunting for critters in creeks. When indoors she likes a challenging jigsaw puzzle and reads psychological thrillers by Stephen King, Dean Koontz, and Robin Cook. She commutes from Asheville where she resides with her husband and her three dogs, Roxy, Rufus and Raeden.
    Lori CruzeDr. Lori Cruze, Assistant Professor of Biology
    B.S., University of Tennessee
    Ph.D., University of Florida
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    Dr. Cruze earned her B.S. at University of Tennessee and her Ph.D. at the University of Florida. Prior to attending graduate school, Cruze worked as a research technician in the Phillips’ lab at the University of Oregon, where she studied thermal preference, reproduction, and sperm competition in the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. At the University of Florida, she investigated the evolution of steroid hormone synthesis and signaling in the extra-embryonic membranes of egg-laying amniotes (birds, crocodilians, and turtles). Before joining the Wofford’s faculty in 2015 as a visiting assistant professor, she worked at the Medical University of South Carolina as a postdoctoral fellow and research assistant professor studying the effects of prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting contaminants on development in baby boys and girls.

    Cruze is fascinated by how environmental factors, such as temperature and environmental contaminants, affect reproductive physiology and embryonic development. She collaborates with colleagues at the Medical University of South Carolina on human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A. For the summer of 2016 Dr. Cruze was awarded a grant from the South Carolina Independent Colleges and Universities to supervise a student research project with C. elegans on the Wofford Campus.

    Cruze enjoys live-music, backpacking, gardening, and spending time with her chocolate lab, Jed.

    She teaches both first year courses (Bio 150 and 151) with passion and her students rave about her effectiveness in course evaluations. This is one reason her position has been converted to the tenure track. She will offer upper division courses in her specialties of Physiology (342) and eagerly anticipates creating a Developmental Biology course for Wofford students.

    G. R. DavisG.R. Davis, McCalla Professor of Biology and Chair
    B.S., Campbell University
    Ph.D., University of North Carolina
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    Dr. Davis received his B.S. in Biology from Campbell University and his Ph.D. in physiology from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill where he investigated the normal development of the nervous system in larval and metamorphosing bullfrogs. He conducted two years of post-doctoral research on anatomical and behavioral recovery from spinal cord injury in lampreys at the University of Missouri. Previously an assistant professor of biology at Wingate College, Davis came to Wofford in 1993.

    In Human Physiology (342) and Histology (344), he tells personal stories as vivid examples of physiology and pathophysiology. He was named the South Carolina Independent Colleges and University Teacher of the Year for Wofford in 2007, the same year his first collaborative book was published by the Hub City Writers Project. “The Cottonwood Trail: Glimpses of Wildness in the Heart of Spartanburg” has his photographs and those of his frequent travel companion Wofford Art Historian Dr. Peter Schmunk and essays by Thomas Webster.

    During a nine-day visit to Africa University (AU) in Old Mutare, Zimbabwe in 2007 arranged by Dr. Ab Abercrombie (Wofford Professor Emeritus of Biology), Davis interviewed and photographed AU farm workers and their families. That work was incorporated into another book “Africa University: Thy Wonders Displayed” with co-authors Drs. Ab Abercrombie, Terry Ferguson (Wofford Environmental Studies) and Chris Hope (retired chair of Sociology at the College of Charleston.)

    Following a January 2012 Travel Study Project to Zimbabwe and Kenya with Biology colleague Dr. John Moeller, Davis remained in Zimbabwe until May on faculty development leave to teach Anatomy and Physiology to a dozen nursing students in AU’s Faculty of Health Sciences. Again, he was very active with his trusty Nikon camera and produced a book and an exhibition of photographs with extended captions entitled “A Sojourn in Africa.” That semester-long experience in Zimbabwe profoundly affected Davis’s teaching style. With frequent power outages on AU’s campus, Davis spent more class time using the chalkboard and found that in many situations, board-work is more conducive to learning than slick Powerpoint presentations.

    Davis has co-sponsored a dozen January travel study projects to fourteen countries in South America, Europe and Africa with colleagues from Art History, Foreign Languages, and Biology.

    An avid photographer, Dr. Davis enjoys sharing that passion with his students. Look in Wofford’s library for a copy of “Life in Nambia and South Africa,” a 100 page book of photographs and essays by students who participated in the January 2014 Interim he and Dr. Moeller organized.

    In 2007 he made his first wilderness backing trip into Wyoming’s Wind River Range with Dr. Schmunk. In subsequent summers, they’ve explored the Wyoming’s Grand Tetons, Idaho’s Sawtooth Range, and the Ansel Adams Wilderness in California’s Sierra Nevada Range, and Montana’s Beartooth Range. Closer to home, he camps at a favorite spot on Looking Glass Rock just north of Brevard, NC.

    Named the Dr. and Mrs. Larry Hearn McCalla Professor of Biology in May 2014, Davis became chair of the Biology Department in May of 2015. He really enjoys interviewing each newly-declared biology major and for each one writing a biographical sketch that becomes part of that student's Degreeworks information. Their academic advisors can use this to provide individually-tailored advice for their remaining semesters at Wofford.
    Stacey R. HettesStacey R. Hettes, Associate Professor, Biology, Associate Provost for Faculty Development
    B.S., King's College
    Ph.D., University of California, Riverside
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    Dr. Stacey Hettes earned her B.S. degree from Kings College in 1996 and her Ph.D. from the University of California-Riverside in 2003. She is a native of Lake Wallenpaupack, Penn. In August 2003, she came to Wofford, where her dream job to teach at a residential liberal arts college awaited her. She credits exceptional teachers at both King’s and UC- Riverside, most notably Dr. Joan Coffin and Dr. Glenn Stanley for cultivating her passion for teaching.

    Hettes believes whole heartedly in liberal arts education. Her interest in teaching extends well beyond traditional classroom lecture and laboratory exercises. Thus, she is excited to work with students on research investigating the neurobiological basis of feeding behavior. Her work aims to elucidate how neural activity in the area of the brain known as the hypothalamus initiates complex goal oriented behaviors such as eating. Through teaching a research methods course, she has the opportunity to work with many of our bio majors on hands on scientific investigation. Some projects have resulted in the opportunity for students to continue with advanced research and to present their findings at scientific meetings spanning the nation from Washington, D.C., to San Diego, Calif.

    Beyond the Biology Department, Hettes encourages hands-on learning across the curriculum and is a proponent of rolling up our sleeves and learning by doing. During Interim, she offers a pottery course to students to experience wheel throwing pottery. She is involved with active and service learning opportunities with the Beta Beta Beta Biology Club and the Wofford College Pottery Club. She strives to balance intellectual inquiry, experiential learning, freedom of expression, and pursuing new areas of knowledge and understanding. She received the Roger Milliken Award for Excellence in the Teaching of Science in 2009.

    Her passion for her students’ education is matched only by her love of her dogs, Pepper and Chili, and her desire to spend time with her family.

    Hettes regularly teaches Cellular Neurobiology (447), Systems Neurobiology (448), Research Methods in Neurobiology (351), Advanced Topics in Research (Bio 450), and Introduction to Cellular Biology (214). She’s also taught Human Physiology (342) and the second semester of the course for first year students (Bio 151).

    Dr. Hettes was chosen to serve the college as Associate Provost for Faculty Development for a three-year period beginning in 2015. She played a crucial role in creating Wofford’s sabbatical program that was endorsed by the faculty in the spring of 2016. While serving as Associate Provost, Dr. Hettes continues to teach one course each semester.
    Tracie IvyTracie M. Ivy, Assistant Professor
    B.S., University of Illinois M.S., Illinois State University Ph.D., Illinois State University  
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    Dr. Ivy grew up in Central Illinois and stayed close to home for her B.S. at University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) and her M.S. and Ph.D. at Illinois State University. She also completed graduate work at New Mexico State University. Her Master’s and Ph.D. work focused on the evolution of mating behavior in crickets, with behavioral and quantitative genetics work in the lab and field work at Grand Teton National Park, along with collecting expeditions across the country. She spent 2 years as a postdoctoral fellow at Universität Zürich studying the behavioral genetics of dung fly mate choice and development. She then traveled back to the U.S. to research the genetics of ethanol tolerance in fruit flies at the University of Rochester before joining the faculty of Wofford in 2010. She collaborates with colleagues at Illinois State University on maternal investment in house wrens. At Wofford, she and her students are continuing the research on ethanol tolerance in several strains of fruit flies.

    Dr. Ivy takes particular care to assure the success of first year students in her courses in Biological Inquiry (150) and Biological Development (151). Introduction to Biostatistics (241) is a course she developed to share her passion for statistics. She leads the Seminar in Human Evolution (310) and is excited to teach a new course she is creating in Conservation Biology (305). In her Research and Communication in Evolution (352) course, students design, conduct, and communicate an original research project working as a team. Problem-based learning and case studies are frequent components in her courses.

    Ivy enjoys hiking, motorcycling, knitting, and hanging out with her numerous cats. She shares her love of reading by moderating the Faculty Book Club where she and colleagues from across the Wofford campus have read and discussed Sigmond Freud, Confucius, and Darwin’s Origin of Species. She’s also involved with Wofford’s Peer Tutoring network and was elected by the faculty to serve on the President Samhat’s Advisory Council.
    David I. KusherDavid I. Kusher, Professor, Biology
    B.S., University of California, Santa Barbara
    M.S., San Francisco State University
    Ph.D., University of Georgia
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    Dr. Kusher joined the Wofford faculty in 1996. He received his B.S. in aquatic biology from the University of California Santa Barbara, his M.S. in marine biology at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (through San Francisco State University), and his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Georgia. As global shark populations are collapsing, his master’s research focused on age, growth and reproduction in sharks. As environmental contamination increases, his doctoral research examined cellular and molecular responses of fish to toxic metals.

    Kusher conducted three post-doctoral research projects, each of which examined stress induced immunosuppression as it relates to cancer development. At first he was a National Institute of Health Immunology Research Fellow at Emory University and continued immunology research at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and All Children's Hospital.

    Kusher teaches both freshman and upper level courses: (Biological Inquiry (150), Marine Biology (385), Freshwater Biology (386), Ecotoxicology (383), and Case Studies in Environmental Issues (497). During Interim, Kusher teaches coral reef biology and SCUBA diving on the reefs of Bonaire (Netherland Antilles, southern Caribbean) and Little Cayman Island.

    Students know Dr. Kusher as a passionate scientist that uses environmental current events in class discussions to not only understand the biology of an ecosystem, but also to examine how politics impact the system. Every course he teaches is infused with how science in general and biology in particular has real world applications and consequences. Many of his courses incorporate field-based laboratory experiences in nearby mountain streams and lakes and in coastal estuaries in which students work with South Carolina DNR, DEHC and coastal marine scientists to see with their own eyes the impact of human activities on the environment. Through his numerous contacts he arranges summer internships for students to conduct field and laboratory research.

    A student in Kusher’s Marine Biology course wrote “He has inspired me to be a better person concerning the environment. I have changed wasteful habits and now want to pursue a career that works to protect the environment. (I've thought for a while I would want to do this but this course solidified this). I have never cared so much about a course and I think most of that stems from Dr. Kusher's enthusiasm and passion.”

    As a member of the General Education Task Force which is carefully examining the general education curriculum for all students at Wofford College, Dr. Kusher is a vocal advocate for offering courses in which all students become knowledgeable in what science is, how science is done, and the ways that scientific research can guide our decisions as individuals and as citizens.

    Kusher’s daughter plans to use her college degrees in biology and film to help protect nature from harm. His two teenage sons are accomplished soccer players. He and his boys are often seen cheering Wofford’s Men's and Women's soccer teams at their matches on Snyder Field. He enjoys hiking especially in Maine and California.
    Geoffrey C. MitchellDr. Geoffrey C. Mitchell, Assistant Professor
    B.S., Furman University
    Ph.D., University of Arizona
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    Dr. Mitchell received his B.S. in Biology from Furman University before earning a Ph.D. in Cancer Biology from the University of Arizona. His dissertation focused on the role of a specific transcription factor, p63, in modulating the acute and long-term effects of radiation therapy for head and neck tumors on non-diseased salivary glands. As a postdoctoral researcher, he joined another lab at the University of Arizona, where he studied how eukaryotic cells make a decision about whether or not to divide. This interest in cell cycle regulation and a love for SCUBA diving inspired Mitchell to initiate a new research program while working as a visiting assistant professor at Colby College; he is trying to determine how coral cells and the algae that reside within them coordinate their cell divisions to maintain a healthy symbiosis. This is an important issue today because rising ocean temperatures are interfering with this delicate symbiosis, causing massive changes to reef ecosystems across the globe.

    During the summers of 2016 and 2017 Dr. Mitchell supervised several Wofford students who continue this line of research. They are supported by grants from the Wofford Faculty-Student Collaborative fund and the J.M. Smith Corporation.

    Mitchell joined Wofford’s faculty in 2015 and teaches Genetics (212), Cell Biology (214), Cellular Biochemistry (433) and Cancer Biology (449.) In his first semester teaching Biochemistry at Wofford, he had his student working in pairs or triples create posters that described the biochemical basis for a disease of their choosing and summarize treatments as described in the primary literature. Poster sessions are attended by the entire Biology faculty who listen to these students who share their newly-developed expertise. These biochemistry poster sessions have become a rite of passage for Wofford Biology majors.

    In his spare time, Mitchell enjoys climbing on rock and ice, especially on the grand scale. His summits include Mt. Rainier, a winter ascent of Mt. Whitney (the highest peak in the lower 48), the Grand Teton, and Mont Blanc. He hopes to weave his love for the mountains into an exciting Interim at some point. In January 2017 he led a trip to Ecuador entitled “Coffee and Chocolate.” For January 2018 his travel project investigates Costa Rica’s Rich Biodiversity.
    John F. MoellerJohn F. Moeller, Professor and Vice-Chair
    B.A., University of California, San Diego
    Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara
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    Professor Moeller received his B.A. in animal physiology from the University of California, San Diego, and his Ph.D. in biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara. His graduate work focused on the sensory physiology, anatomy, and behavior of deep water crustaceans of the Pacific Ocean. Moeller conducted a post-doctoral research project at Florida State University investigating the role chemosensory systems play in reproductive behavior. These studies focused on the neural pathways that mediate chemosensory signals in sharks and stingrays. He also has participated in projects developing aquaculture techniques for Pacific sturgeon and in studies examining retinal development in amphibians.

    Moeller taught for six years at St Andrews Presbyterian College and served as chair of the department for five years. While at St. Andrews, his research shifted to communication and behavior in various species of insects, especially wasps. His current research focuses on wingless wasps commonly known as velvet ants. Most of these organisms are solitary parasites on the larvae of ground nesting bees and wasps. With Wofford students he investigates how these velvet ants locate the nests of their hosts. Their results have been shared at the annual meetings of the Association of Southeastern Biologists and the Animal Behavior Society. Dr. Moeller will continue with this research during the fall of 2017 while he is on sabbatical.

    For several years Moeller was the Lead Advisor for Health Careers. He maintains close relationships with the South Carolina Medical Schools and their admissions personnel. He is one of several Wofford Biologists that organize medical internships during the January Interim term.

    He and Dr. Davis enjoy leading January Travel Projects to southern Africa where they investigate desert ecology and conservation on safaris in Namibia, Botswana, and Kenya. They guided students to consider the natural and cultural histories of South Africa and Zimbabwe during stays in Cape Town and Old Mutare, respectively.

    Although Dr. Moeller is an avid reader of scientific literature, his commitment to the liberal arts is manifest in many ways, one of which was to marry Dr. Tracy Revels, a Professor of History. The two were married on a tour boat in Wakulla Springs, Florida, the site of some of his field work during his time at the University of Florida and the subject of Dr. Revel’s first book written as a young historian.

    Moeller regularly teaches Biology Concepts and Methods (150) and Human Physiology (342). His course in Animal Behavior (392) is always popular. He and Dr. Smith often design their courses to have overlapping laboratory research components. Moeller regularly supervises students conducting independent research projects during the fall and spring academic semesters. His teaching techniques include “flipping the classroom” in which most of the class meeting time is devoted to a discussion of information that students read or watch beforehand.

    In 2015 Dr. Moeller was the recipient of two prestigious awards: The South Carolina Independent Colleges and Universities Teacher of the Year for Wofford College, and Wofford’s Milliken Award for Excellence in the Teaching of Science.
    morrisjsJeremy Morris, Assistant Professor of Biology
    B.S., University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
    Ph.D., University of Utah
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    Dr. Morris received a B.S. from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga and a Ph.D. in Biology from the University of Utah. His research focuses on musculoskeletal design in vertebrates and how sexual selection and natural selection shape the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Specific topics of interest in Dr. Morris's research include morphological specialization for locomotor performance and aggressive behavior and the biomechanical and physiological underpinnings of animal performance.

    Dr. Morris is also very interested in public engagement in science. At the University of Utah, he served as Project Coordinator for the Initiative to Bring Science Programs to the Incarcerated (INSPIRE), a program that brings science and conservation projects to incarcerated populations. He also carried out a variety of informal science events for the public while serving as a Science Communications Fellow at the Natural History Museum of Utah and as a fellow in the STEM Ambassador Program.

    After earning his undergraduate degree, Dr. Morris spent several years working in conservation biology, leading fields crews that carried out research on endangered Hawaiian forest birds and on the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on bird life in the Mississippi River Delta. He also taught English to K-12 students in China and managed a zipline course in coastal Alaska. More recently, he led a National Geographic Student Expedition to Bali, Indonesia that focused on ecotourism and marine conservation.

    Dr. Morris is an avid traveler and has spent several years traveling abroad throughout southeast Asia, the Himalaya, Central America, and Europe. While traveling, he has SCUBA dived all over the world, including the coral reefs of Honduras, Thailand, and Indonesia. He spends much of his free time rock climbing, and has completed several overnight ascents of big walls in Yosemite and Zion National Park. Dr. Morris also enjoys skiing, gardening, and trail running.
    Robert E. MossRobert E. Moss, McCalla Professor of Biology, Biology
    B.S., University of Pennsylvania
    Ph.D., Harvard University
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    Dr. Moss received his B.S. degree in biochemistry from the University of Pennsylvania and his Ph.D. degree in cell and developmental biology from Harvard University. His research focused on how genes guide development. After completing his degree, Moss worked at the National Headquarters of the American Cancer Society for two years; cancer always has been one focus of his studies. Before coming to Wofford in 1992, Moss taught at Columbia, Fordham, and Yeshiva Universities in New York. A life-long learner, Dr. Moss’s concern for public health in the aftermath of 9/11motivated him to complete coursework in Public Health at USC, and a 6 month sabbatical internship at DHEC, South Carolina’s public health agency. He was named the Dr. and Mrs. Larry Hearn McCalla Professor of Biology in 2015.

    For many years Dr. Moss chaired the Health Careers Advisors Committee and continues to be very involved in advising for health careers, especially Physician Assistants and Genetic Counseling. He coordinates off-campus internships for students with health-related career interests through Wofford's Interim Program.

    Past Interims include in-depth studies of cancer, clinical internships with hospitals and physicians nation-wide, and one entitled “Getting into Medical School.” He has lead January Travel Interim projects to Japan to study Japanese culture, as well as to Israel and Jordan, where he and his students investigated the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Moss teaches introduction to Genetics and Molecular Biology (212), Introduction to Public Health (303), Immunology (423), Human Genetics Seminar (421), Molecular Biology and Genomics (436), Developmental Biology (331), and Current Topics in Biology (360). He also teaches Cancer Biology (482) and Medical Terminology (301). He frequently includes cases studies as a way to delve deeply into course topics. He is a passionate advocate for journal clubs in which students critically read scientific literature. That became an official course BIO 365 Analysis of Scientific Literature for the first time in the spring of 2017.

    At Honors Convocation in May 2017, he was recognized as Wofford’s recipient of The United Methodist Church Board of Higher Education’s Exemplary Teacher Award for 2016-17.

    Beginning in the fall of 2017, after 25 years at Wofford Dr. Moss will have a reduced course load, teaching 2 courses each semester. With his extra free time, Dr. Moss has already taken on a number of public health related projects to benefit the college and its students.
    Doug Rayner in GreenhouseDouglas A. Rayner, Professor, Biology
    B.S., University of New Hampshire
    M.A., Ph.D., University of South Carolina
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    Dr. Rayner received his B.S. degree from the University of New Hampshire and his M.A. and Ph.D. in biology (botany and ecology emphasis) from the University of South Carolina.  Rayner came to Wofford in 1989. Previously, he was employed as botanist and inventory coordinator with the Non-game and Heritage Trust Program of the South Carolina Wildlife Department, where his responsibilities included conducting statewide inventories for plants and unique natural areas. His present research interests include the population biology of rare and endangered plants, the identification of unique natural areas, the effect of deer browse on plant diversity, the impact of invasive plant species on plant and animal diversity, and how ecosystems recover when invasive species are removed. Students are co-authors on publications in all these areas and present their findings at state and regional scientific meetings.

    Rayner is co-author of “A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina” which is used as the textbook courses that lead to the designation as a Master Naturalist. Of course he uses this book in his field botany class.

    Rayner is also a private biological consultant on endangered plants, animals and wetlands; a past member of the board of directors of the Spartanburg Science Center; a scientific advisor to the SPACE (the local land conservation trust); and he has been active in committee work for the Association of Southeastern Biologists and the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society. 

    He first became affiliated with S.C. Nature Conservancy in 1979 as a scientific advisor. He is currently serving his fourth three-year term as a trustee. The Nature Conservancy is the largest land conservation organization in the world with offices in 50 states and more than 35 countries.

    Rayner places students in internships and independent interim projects through his numerous contacts with the SC Department of Natural Resources, the Nature Conservancy and other agencies.

    These affiliations clearly demonstrate Rayner’s commitment to applying scientific methods to issues relating to conservation and the environment. He has given numerous invited talks.

    One of Rayner’s January Interim projects introduces students to medical/economic botany, with an emphasis on those plants affecting human health. He often collaborates with Sociology Professor Dr. Gerald Thurmond. Together they lead January Travel-Study Interims to Belize, Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands, and canoe/kayaking trips to south Georgia and Florida. These professor-led projects emphasize conservation and the impacts of humans. In Belize and Ecuador, students gain insights into how local people interact with their environments. In the Galapagos Islands, students experience firsthand the world’s greatest laboratory for studying natural selection and evolution.

    An avid birdwatcher and expert fisherman, he often escapes to Eastatoee Gorge where trout find his techniques irresistible. On Friday afternoons you might find him in Andrews Field house playing basketball with faculty colleagues, none of whom are intimidated by youthful hoopsters.

    Rayner teaches Bio 150, field biology (370), field botany (372), evolution (399), plants and the ecosystem (313) and ecology (382).


    Micki C. RoddyMicki C. Roddy, Administrative Assistant

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    Mrs. Roddy is the first face you see when you enter the Biology Office Suite on the second floor of Milliken Science Building. She’s usually at her desk from 7:30 am until 2:30 pm during the academic year. She’s the person to ask if you need to be pointed in the right direction. She knows who’s who and what’s where. Mrs. Roddy is a major reason the biology department operates smoothly. Her job ranges from setting up appointments with the department chair for students declaring their major in biology to uploading pre-med students’ information to the medical school application service to tracking down professors and just about everything in between. On those days when you just need a little pick-me-up to keep you going, she has a bucket of candy that she loves to share to help you make it through the day.

    Mrs. Roddy received an Associates Degree from Greenville Technical College, and worked as a paralegal for many years after staying home with her two children, Morgan and Sam, for several years. She lives with her husband Sammy in Pauline just south of Spartanburg. Morgan already has her heart set on coming to Wofford and Sam loves the snakes we have for teaching purposes in a special facility on the first floor.
    George Shiflet in officeGeorge W. Shiflet, Professor Emeritus
    B.A., Furman University
    M.S., Ph.D., Vanderbilt University
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    Dr. Shiflet received his B.S. degree from Furman University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biology (zoology and botany) from Vanderbilt University. For 13 years he taught at Erskine College, where he also served as chairman of the department for 10 years. Shiflet came to Wofford in 1987 and was named chair of the Department of Biology in 1992. Originally trained as an aquatic ecologist, Shiflet expanded his research interests into the areas of molecular/cellular biology, simulation and modeling of biological systems, and genetics. For many summers, Shiflet was a visiting researcher in the Department of Zoology, University of California-Berkeley, where he studied the control of gene expression in the early embryos of sea urchins. He helped develop a rapid screening test for Fragile X Syndrome at the Greenwood Genetic Center and was a visiting scientist at the Neuropsychiatric Institute at UCLA Medical Center. There he studied regulation of arginase, an enzyme of the urea cycle, that may also play a role in the development of several types of cancer.

    Shiflet collaborated with practicing physicians on a case-based course in biomedicine. Selected students consider real medical cases, much as real physicians do. The tremendous impact of this course on biology majors encouraged Shiflet to develop two other case-based courses — Public Health and Environmental Problems.

    Shiflet has a strong interest in environmental and tropical biology. He conducted numerous Interim courses in tropical areas (Ecuador/Galapagos, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Costa Rica, Kenya, Australia, Hawaii and various Caribbean islands).

    Shiflet continues to collaborate with his wife, Dr. Angela B. Shiflet, professor emeritus and retired chair of the Department of Computer Science, to develop computational modules for the Keck Foundation. Their textbook "Computational Science: Modeling and Simulation for the Sciences," was published by Princeton University Press in March, 2006.

    Shiflet served as department chair until 2010, during which time the biology faculty expanded from five to thirteen members. He passed that baton on to Dr. Ellen Goldey so that he could pursue other interests.

    Shiflet taught Microbiology (324), Advanced Topics in Cell Biology (433), and developed the Case Studies in Biomedicine (495), Public Health (493), and Environmental Issues (497). He created a new course in Nutrition (490).
    Charles F. SmithCharles F. Smith, Associate Professor, Biology
    B.S., University of South Carolina
    Ph.D., University of Connecticut
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    Dr. Smith received a Ph.D. from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, and a B.S. in biology from the University of South Carolina in Columbia magna cum laude. Prior to joining the Wofford faculty in 2009, Smith held an appointment as a National Science Foundation Pre-Doctoral Research Fellow and concurrently taught in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, where he combined his work on snake mating system evolution with teaching upper-level and introductory courses such as vertebrate biology and biological principles. 

    Smith’s research interests center on the evolution of mating systems, especially in the links between spatial ecology, behavior, morphology and physiology, and the fitness benefits and costs arising from each of these attributes at the population level. His research combines field (e.g., radio-tracking, GIS analysis) and laboratory (e.g., endocrinological, histological, molecular) approaches to address hypotheses about the spatial ecology and reproductive physiology of pit viper snakes. As part of his research program, Smith has been collaborating for the past six years with Dr. Gordon W. Schuett (Georgia State University), Dr. Warren Booth (The University of Tulsa), and Brenna Levine (a Ph.D. candidate at The University of Arkansas) in applying molecular techniques to directly measure male fitness in free-ranging snakes. Much of Dr. Smith’s research centers on a population of northern copperhead snakes located in the central Connecticut River valley, which he has studied continuously for the past 16 years. 

    Currently, Dr. Smith holds an appointment as a research scientist with Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut; he also serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Chiricahua Desert Museum, and co-directs a non-profit scientific research organization devoted to studies of pit viper snakes. In 2014, Smith was an organizer of an international symposium held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, (Biology of the Pit vipers) that brought together many of the leading researchers in snake biology. He is currently co-organizing the Biology of Snakes Conference to be during the summer of 2017 at the Geronimo Event Center in Rodeo, New Mexico. Recently, he co-edited and designed the two-volume book “Rattlesnakes of Arizona” published in 2016 and 2017, and is currently working on two other books, including Rattlesnakes of the Grand Canyon to be published later in 2017.

    Dr. Smith teaches Biology of the Vertebrates (322), a research seminar course in evolution (310), and the first year Biological Inquiry courses (150) as well as interim travel courses to Central and South America to study ecology and ecotourism. He paired with religion professor Dr. Dan Mathewson for a travel project to India in 2016 and has plans to lead students over interim to Vietnam and Cambodia in 2018.

    Natalie W. SpiveyNatalie W. Spivey, Associate Professor, Biology
    B.S., Emory University
    Ph.D., Duke University
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    Dr. Spivey grew up in Orlando, Florida. Recognizing the value of a liberal arts education, she spent her first two years of college at Oxford College of Emory University and her final two years on Emory’s main campus in Atlanta, where she earned a B.S. in Biology. She then entered the cell and molecular biology graduate program at Duke University. Her dissertation research focused on the interaction between plants and pathogens. Using microarray technology, she investigated the changes in gene expression that occur when Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant model organism, is infected with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. This led to the discovery of novel transcriptional regulators that control the plant’s immune response. 
     
    Dr. Spivey joined the biology faculty at Wofford in 2009 and has made critically important contributions during the development and refinement of our award-winning first year course sequence (Bio 150 and 151.) She regularly teaches Introduction to Genetics and Molecular Biology (212) and offers courses in Microbiology (324) and the Seminar in Genetics and Genomics (311.)  Her expertise in the regulation of gene expression makes her very well suited to teach a variety of courses that students find fascinating and relevant.
     
    For the past several years, Dr. Spivey organized and hosted the Rapid Research Round-Up early in the fall semester.  At this event, Wofford students who participated in summer research internships at various institutions across the country and around the globe described their work in short presentations during a session attended by the Biology faculty and interested students.  This event emphasizes the accomplishments of Wofford students who gain valuable research experience and it inspires other students to pursue such opportunities.  Beginning in the Fall of 2015, Dr. Smith will organize and host the Rapid Research Round-Up as Dr. Spivey takes on a different important role.
     
    As the new Coordinator for Health Careers Advising she assists students in planning for their lives after Wofford. Working with Dr. George Tyson (retired cardiologist, Wofford Class of ‘72) and others, Dr. Spivey arranges mock medical school interviews with local physicians, many of whom are Wofford alums.  She hosts representatives from the Admissions Offices of state and regional medical schools who come to Wofford to meet our students and describe their programs and admissions processes.  Dr. Spivey maintains a website specifically for students interested in careers in medicine.  It has detailed information about timelines, admissions standards and requirements, MCAT preparation and tips on how to apply to medical school.  Any student seriously interest in medical school should enroll in that website and check it frequently.  Working with Micki Roddy, she oversees the collection and distribution of student evaluations by faculty who’ve taught them in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Psychology as part of their medical school application.  
     
    During the January term, Dr. Spivey has organized Medical Internships where qualified students are paired with local physicians for intense real-world experiences that range from routine office visits to surgeries in operating rooms. She has also collaborated with Dr. Baker on the “Living in a Microbial World” interim project where students explore the role that microbes have played throughout history and in our daily lives. 
     
    She is married to Dr. Joseph Spivey, Associate Professor of Mathematics.  The Spiveys have two young children who provide a steady stream of evidence that we all live in a world ruled by microbes.