7 to 8(9)
40 to 70 ft. but has been known to reach 150 to 200 ft.
Maximum of 150 ft.
In youth: broadly pyramidal; at maturity: wide-spreading and flat topped
Best in sun or partial shade
Well-drained, somewhat dry, moderately fertile soil
male, finger-shaped cones, very densely set, more numerous on lower portion of tree; female, stout, erect cones initially purple in color and found in upper portion of tree
4 inches long, upright cones found on upper side of branches, green while developing, finally brown
Excellent evergreen specimen tree also used as a screen in large-scale areas
Native range is Himalayan Mountains from east Afghanistan to Garwhal. Introduced 1831
Pests - borers
Rapid growth rate; lower limbs may touch ground